Lung Injury and Repair in Coronavirus Disease 2019–Related Acute Lung InjuryThe alveolar epithelium is the largest surface area of the body in continuous contact with the outside environment and is critical for effective gas exchange to support metabolism. The alveolar walls consist of three distinct layers: the alveolar epithelium, comprising type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells; a matrix scaffold; and the microvascular endothelium. Most of the alveolar surface is covered by thin type I epithelial cells that cover the matrix framework and are closely opposed to microvascular endothelial cells.
METTL3-Mediated m6A Modification Links Liver Homeostasis and PathologyRNA modification is a new paradigm of epigenetic regulation of gene expression. This evolving field has been coined as RNA epigenetics or epitranscriptomics. Extensive studies over recent years have shown that RNA modifications affect multiple steps of RNA metabolism, including RNA export, splicing, processing, stability, degradation, and translation. Among different forms of RNA modifications, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification is the most prevalent form of messenger RNA modification in eukaryotes, which is critically implicated in the regulation of cellular functions.
Pathophysiology of Hyaluronan Accumulation/Depolymerization in Osteoarthritic JointsIn healthy articular cartilage, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is properly maintained by the overall anabolic and catabolic balance of slow synthesis and degradation, a so-called homeostatic state, under the influence of synovial metabolism. Though the ECM of articular cartilage tissue contains low amounts of hyaluronan (HA), its main components are collagen, type II, IX, and XI, and proteoglycans, such as aggrecan. Nevertheless, HA plays crucial roles in cartilage, especially in retaining aggrecan in tissues.
Rigor, Reproducibility, and the P ValueAlthough concerns about rigor and reproducibility in preclinical research are not new, a highly cited 2005 article by Ioannidis1, entitled “Why Most Published Research Findings Are False,” attracted attention by the New York Times (https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/21/science/new-truths-that-only-one-can-see.html?, last accessed March 16, 2021), was condemned by some (https://replicationindex.com/2020/12/24/ioannidis-is-wrong-most-of-the-time, last accessed March 16, 2021), and has been followed by both special collections of journal articles, such as Nature's “Challenges in Irreproducible Research” collection (https://www.nature.com/collections/prbfkwmwvz, last accessed March 16, 2021), and by increased attention from funding agencies.
Beyond Stiffness: Collagen Signaling in Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreas RegenerationThis commentary highlights the article by Ruggeri et al that reports the importance of discoidin domain receptor 1 in tissue homeostasis in pancreatic injury and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma pathogenesis.
Podocytes: The Role of Lysosomes in the Development of Nephrotic SyndromeThis commentary highlights the article by Li et al that links ceramide accumulation in podocytes to cellular damage and nephrotic syndrome.
Lacrimal Gland Postganglionic Innervation: Unveiling the Role of Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nerves in Stimulating Tear SecretionThis commentary highlights the article by Jin et al that studied the regulation of lacrimal gland innervation by sympathetic and parasympathetic components.
Bioactive Lipids in Shoulder Tendon TearsThis commentary highlights the article by Dakin et al that demonstrates critical roles of bioactive lipids in the resolution of inflammation in shoulder tendon tears.
The Serotype-Specific Role of Regulator of Cov Polymorphisms in the Pathogenesis of Invasive Group A Streptococcal InfectionsThis commentary highlights the article by Bernard et al that reports the role of rocA polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of Group A Streptococcus.
Invasive Ductular Reaction: Form and FunctionThis commentary highlights the article by Clerbaux et al that describes the critical role of invasive ductular reaction in hepatocellular injury.
Uterine Epithelial Development and Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2: It Is Important for More than Just CancerThis commentary highlights the article by Fang et al that describes the role of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 in endometrial development.
Centrosomal Proteins in Urothelial Tumors: New Pathways in Disease PathogenesisThis commentary highlights the article by Li et al that identified the centrosomal protein 72 as a biomarker for prognosis of urothelial cancer.
A Link between the Gut and Bone: Bone Health Impacted by Changes in Gut MicrobiotaThis commentary highlights the article by Hathaway-Schrader et al that studies the impact of antibiotic-disruption of the gut microbiota on long-term bone development.
Podocytes: Way to GoThis commentary highlights the article by Hara et al that discusses the clinical implications of mitotic catastrophe in podocyte health during diabetic kidney disease.
Autophagy-Based Diagnosis of Pregnancy Hypertension and Pre-EclampsiaThis commentary highlights the article by Aoki et al that shows that Atg7 deficiency–mediated placental autophagy imbalance may contribute towards pre-eclampsia.
Atypical Protein Kinase C: Breaking Down Barriers in Ocular Disease?This commentary highlights the article by Lin et al that demonstrates the therapeutic potential of small-molecule atypical protein kinase C inhibitors in inflammatory ocular disease.
APOL1–miR-193 Axis as a Bifunctional Regulator of the Glomerular Parietal Epithelium: Maintaining Parietal Cell Phenotype versus Promoting Podocyte DifferentiationThis commentary highlights the article by Kumar et al that reports an essential role of APOL1 in maintaining podocyte phenotype.
Therapeutic Role of Sphingosine-1–Phosphate Receptor 2 in the Progression of Esophageal AdenocarcinomaThis commentary highlights the article by Liu et al that provides novel mechanistic insights in how conjugated bile acids promote invasive growth of esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Murine Double Minute-2 Links Cell Cycle Control and Inflammation in Homeostasis and DiseaseThis commentary highlights the article by Fan et al that provides mechanistic insights into murine double minute-2's anti-inflammatory role in intraocular inflammation.
Linking Sex Differences in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease to Bile Acid Signaling, Gut Microbiota, and High Fat DietThis commentary highlights the article by Jena et al that studied the complex interplay between diet, bile acids, sex, and dysbiosis in hepatic steatosis and inflammation.
Influenza Casts a Lung ShadowThis commentary highlights the article by Pociask et al that provides new insights into the lingering effects of influenza infection.
Is Centrosomal Protein 70, a Centrosomal Protein with New Roles in Breast Cancer Dissemination and Metastasis, a Facilitator of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition?This commentary highlights the article by Shi et al that identified centrosomal protein 70 as a key mediator of breast cancer growth and metastasis.
miRNA-Coordinated Networks as Promising Therapeutic Targets for Acute Kidney InjuryThis commentary highlights the article by Wilflingseder et al that investigates the relationship between in vivo inhibition of miR-182 by antisense oligonucleotides and improved post-injury kidney function.
Histone Deacetylase Inhibitory Approaches for the Management of OsteoarthritisThis commentary highlights the article by Makki and Haqqi that proposes the use of vorinostat as a therapeutic agent for the management of osteoarthritis.
BRAF Mutations Open Doors for N-Ethyl-N-Nitrosourea–Induced GliomagenesisThis commentary highlights the article by Wang et al that describes a preclinical model for targeting BRAF-mutant gliomas.