Osteochondromas are cartilage-capped tumors that arise near growing physes and are the most common benign bone tumor in children. Osteochondromas can lead to skeletal deformity, pain, loss of motion, and neurovascular compression. Currently, surgery is the only available treatment for symptomatic osteochondromas. Osteochondroma mouse models have been developed to understand the pathology and the origin of osteochondromas and develop therapeutic drugs. Several cartilage regulatory pathways have been implicated in the development of osteochondromas, such as bone morphogenetic protein, hedgehog, and WNT/β-catenin signaling.