- Increased lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis, the important prognostic indicators of aggressive hepatobiliary malignancies such as hepatocellular cancer and cholangiocarcinoma, are associated with poor patient outcome. The liver produces 25% to 50% of total lymphatic fluid in the body and has a dense network of lymphatic vessels. The lymphatic system plays critical roles in fluid homeostasis and inflammation and immune response. Yet, lymphatic vessel alterations and function are grossly understudied in the context of liver pathology.
- Chronic alcohol consumption is linked to the development of alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD). This disease is characterized by a clinical spectrum ranging from steatosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. Several cell types are involved in ALD progression, including hepatic macrophages. Kupffer cells (KCs) are the resident macrophages of the liver involved in the progression of ALD by activating pathways that lead to the production of cytokines and chemokines. In addition, KCs are involved in the production of reactive oxygen species.