- Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a dramatic disease without cure. The US Food and Drug Administration–approved drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, only slow disease progression. The clinical investigation of novel therapeutic approaches for IPF is an unmet clinical need. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor or NOD-like receptors are pattern recognition receptors capable of binding a large variety of stress factors. NLR family pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), once activated, promotes IL-1β, IL-18 production, and innate immune responses.
- Primary liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Incidence of liver cancer has been increasing in recent years, and the 5-year survival is <20%. HCC and CCA are often accompanied with a dense stroma coupled with infiltrated immune cells, which is referred to as the tumor microenvironment. Populations of specific immune cells, such as high density of CD163+ macrophages and low density of CD8+ T cells, are associated with prognosis and survival rates in both HCC and CCA.